William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “‘Muerto por Unos Desconocidos (Killed by people Unknown)’:…
… Mob Violence against African Americans and Mexican Americans, ” in Beyond monochrome: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender within the U.S. Southern and Southwest, ed. Stephanie Cole and Allison Parker (College facility, 2004), 35–74; William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “A Dangerous Experiment: The Lynching of Rafael Benavides, ” New Mexico Historical Review, 80 (summer time 2005), 265–92. For the Texas example, see Nicholas Villaneuva Jr., “‘Sincerely Yours for Dignified Manhood’: Lynching, Violence, and United states Manhood during the first several years of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1914, ” Journal for the western, 49 (Winter 2010), 41–48. On mob physical violence against “racial other people” within the West, see, as an example, Pfeifer, Rough Justice, 86–88; Pfeifer, Roots of harsh Justice, 46–50; and Scott Zesch, The Chinatown War: Chinese l. A. In addition to Massacre of 1871 (nyc, 2012). In the lynching of 29 Sicilians, another cultural team regarded as racially various within the postbellum Southern, see Clive Webb, “The Lynching of Sicilian Immigrants when you look at the United states South, 1886–1910, ” United states Nineteenth Century History, 3 (springtime 2002), 45–76. Regarding the lynching of Sicilians in Colorado, see Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919 (Boulder, 2002), 135–42.
Christopher Waldrep, the countless Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in the usa (nyc, 2002); Christopher Waldrep, ed., Lynching in the usa: a past history in papers (nyc, 2006); Christopher Waldrep, African People in america Confront Lynching: methods of opposition through the Civil War into the Civil Rights age (Lanham, 2008); William D. Carrigan and Christopher Waldrep, eds., Swift to Wrath: Lynching in Global Historical Perspective (Charlottesville, 2013). Jonathan Markowitz, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory (Minneapolis, 2004), xxxi. On lynching into the context of Jim Crow tradition, see Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The customs of Segregation into the Southern, 1890–1940 (New York, 1998), 199–238. The Properties of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching (Jackson, 2012) for analyses of literary and visual representations of lynching from the late nineteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries, see Jacqueline Goldsby, A Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American Life and Literature (Chicago, 2006); and Sandy Alexandre. For narratives of southern and vigilantism that is western lynching, see Lisa Arellano, Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and country (Philadelphia, 2012). For lynching within the context of this Protestant culture regarding the postbellum American South, see Donald G. Mathews, “The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice: Lynching into the United states South, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 62 (Winter–Spring 2008), 27–70. Amy Louise Wood, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America, 1890–1940 (Chapel Hill, 2009), 14. Fury, dir. Fritz Lang ( mgm, 1936); The Ox-Bow Incident, dir. William Wellman (Twentieth Century Fox, 1943). On lynching into the people tradition of new york’s reduced Piedmont, see Bruce E. Baker, “North Carolina Lynching Ballads, ” in less than Sentence of Death, ed. Brundage, 219–46. On lynching in belated nineteenth- and early twentieth-century theater that is black see Koritha Mitchell, managing Lynching: African American Lynching has, Efficiency, and Citizenship, 1890–1930 (Urbana, 2012). Sherrilyn A. Ifill, From the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching when you look at the Twenty-First Century (Boston, 2007). For a residential district study that explored the legacy that is lengthy of inspired lynchings in Marion, Indiana, in 1931, see James H. Madison, Lynching within the Heartland: Race and Memory in the us (ny, 2001). For a summary of lynching in US culture, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, American Lynching ( brand New Haven, 2012). For the argument that the end-of-lynching discourse will continue to contour and distort discussion of US mob physical violence, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, the termination of American Lynching (brand new Brunswick, 2012).
Crystal Feimster, Southern Horrors: ladies together with Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). On African women that are american relationship to lynching, see Evelyn M. Simien, ed., Gender and Lynching: The Politics of Memory (nyc, 2011). For instance studies of lynchings of African US ladies in Georgia, Oklahoma, and sc, see Julie Buckner Armstrong, Mary Turner while the Memory of Lynching (Athens, Ga., 2011); and Maria DeLongoria, “‘Stranger Fruit’: The Lynching of Ebony ladies, The instances of Rosa Jefferson and Marie Scott” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Missouri–Columbia, 2006). For a journalistic remedy for the lynching of two African US partners in Walton County, Georgia, in 1946, see Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: the final Mass Lynching in the usa (ny, 2003). In the lynching of females and kids when you look at the West, see Helen McLure, “‘I Suppose you imagine Strange the Murder of females and Children’: The US society of Collective Violence, 1675–1930” (Ph.D. Diss., Southern Methodist University, 2009). For a summary of female lynching victims, see Kerry Segrave, Lynchings of females in the us: The cases that are recorded 1851–1946 (Jefferson, 2010). Claude A. Clegg III, difficult Ground: an account of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning when you look at the brand New Southern (Urbana, 2010); Terrence Finnegan, A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and sc, 1881–1940 (Charlottesville, 2013). On Mississippi’s respected record of racial mob violence, see Julius E. Thompson, Lynchings in Mississippi: a past history, 1865–1965 (Jefferson, 2007). This Mob Will Surely Take My Life: Lynching in the Carolinas, 1871–1947 (London, 2008); and J. Timothy Cole, The Forest City Lynching of 1900: Populism, Racism, and White Supremacy in Rutherford County, North Carolina (Jefferson, 2003) on lynching in the Carolinas, see Bruce E. Baker.
Kidada E. Williams, They Left marks that are great me personally: African US Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I ( brand New York, 2012). On African American reactions to mob physical physical violence, see Karlos Hill, “Resisting Lynching: Ebony Grassroots reactions to Lynching within the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas best stripchat girls, 1882–1938” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Illinois, 2009).
Present scholarship, particularly that dedicated to civil liberties activism, has started to explore African US reactions to racial terror during the regional level.
On black colored reactions to racial terror in fin-de-siecle Florida plus in 1960s and 1970s Alabama and Mississippi, respectively, see Paul Ortiz, Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden reputation for Ebony Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction into the Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley, 2006); Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Ebony Power in Alabama’s Ebony Belt (ny, 2010); and Akinyele Omowale Umoja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance when you look at the Mississippi Freedom Movement (nyc, 2013). Ifill, Regarding The Courthouse Lawn, xix–xx. For the Senate apology, see Congressional Record, 109 Cong., 1 sess., June 13, 2005, p. S6364–88. For news protection regarding the U.S. Senate apology see, for instance, Wendy Koch, “U.S. Senate Moves to Apologize for Injustice, ” usa Today, June 13, 2005; and Martin C. Evans, “An Apology for Old kind of Terror: Senate Expects to Vote Tomorrow on Resolution regarding Its Failure to assist End Practice of Lynching, ” Newsday, June 12, 2005, p. A34. On efforts to memorialize lynchings in Duluth, Minnesota, in 1920 plus in cost, Utah, in 1925, respectively, see Dora Apel, “Memorialization and its own Discontents: America’s First Lynching Memorial, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 61 (Winter–Spring 2008); and Kimberley Mangun and Larry R. Gerlach, “Making Utah History: Press Coverage of this Robert Marshall Lynching, June 1925, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 143–47. On an attempt by Bryan Stevenson as well as the Equal Justice Initiative to erect memorials at lynching websites all over Southern, see Campbell Robertson, “Before the Battles as well as the Protests, the Chains: In Montgomery, Ala., a Move to keep in mind Slavery where it simply happened, ” nyc instances, Dec. 10, 2013, pp. 17–18.